Interestingly, most of the presented studies viewed reactance primarily as an undesirable factor that has to be eliminated or at least reduced. This contrasts with the concept of learned helplessness, which is a state of passively enduring a threat or even diet psychology reactance from it Seligman, In two studies they found the best fit for the intertwined model.
We conclude by discussing remaining issues and future research directions. Further evidence illustrating the motivational character of reactance comes from Laurin, Kay, and Fitzsimons Recent studies have also shown that the experience of reactance can be associated not just with negative feelings, such as anger, but also with activating positive affect, such as feeling strong and determined Steindl, Jonas, et al.
Wirtschaftspsychologie,35— Motivational Interviewing: Also, when there are restraints against a direct re-establishment of freedom, there can be attempts at re-establishment by implication whenever possible.
With regard to the reactance process in the context of persuasion, research by Silvia showed that threats to freedom through persuasive messages can elicit disagreement through different paths and that these paths have different consequences. Reactance and the unwillingness to help others.
They formed several conclusions about reactance.
An individual's freedom to select when and how to conduct their behavior, and the level to which they are aware of the relevant freedom—and are able to determine behaviors necessary to satisfy that freedom—affect the generation of psychological reactance.
When attempts are made to persuade people by using a forceful message, this message motivates people to present arguments against the persuasive attempt counterarguing.
Simply because the option was no longer available, people actually valued it more. They may aggressively force the threatening person to remove the threat or they may behave in a hostile and aggressive way just to let off steam aggression. Avoidance resulted in more counterarguing and less positive perceptions of the communicator and the change message.
Persuasive messages arouse reactance especially by using forceful and controlling language, such as the terms should, ought, must, and need. Both effects, rationalization and reactance, were strongest if the restriction was self-relevant.
So far, affect and cognition seem to be central elements if we want to understand the nature of reactance processes. Freedom can and may be reestablished by a social implication. People respond to both kinds of freedom restrictions self- and vicariously experiencedbut Sittenthaler and colleagues presented evidence that the process underlying vicarious threats is different from the process of self-experienced threats.
Silvia's study "Deflecting reactance:Reactance is an unpleasant motivational arousal (reaction) to offers, persons, rules, or regulations that threaten or eliminate specific behavioral freedoms. Reactance occurs when a person feels that someone or something is taking away their choices or limiting the range of alternatives.
· Persuasion Psychology: "Reactance" and Overcoming Resistance Andy Luttrell. Loading Unsubscribe from Andy Luttrell? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 18K. Loading Author: Andy Luttrell. · When a person tells you to not perform a behavior, you begin to feel a sense of discomfort.
A person feels discomfort because of the arousal that comes from feeling like their freedom of Author: Yappers Reactance is very similar to a layperson’s idea of reverse psychology: Humans will tend to do the opposite of what they are told to.
Being ordered to do something by an external person or source implies that someone is trying to reduce one’s freedom. Reactance also refers to the idea that people will want something more if they are told they cannot have it.
As a result, humans may act in a manner that will. Consistent with these analyses, in Kray et al.’s () study of “stereotype reactance,” such reactance occurred only if women had sufficient power to act, which supports the idea that reactance develops only if people feel capable of restoring their justgohostelbraga.com by: Psychological Reactance: A Theory of Freedom and Control provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of reactance theory.
This book discusses a number of special topic areas to which the reactance theory seems especially relevant.